We now come to the actual recitation of Kiddush. There are certain minimal requirements for the goblet of wine over which Kiddush is recited. The minimum amount of wine that should be drunk from the goblet is an amount which would "fill the cheek", and for practical purposes we can say that this amount is not less than 80 cc's. Therefore for Kiddush we should not use a wine glass which cannot contain at least 80 cc's. This would certainly disqualify many of our modern small wine glasses. (If the celebrant is using a suitable goblet but the rest of the company has unsuitably small glasses, after Kiddush the celebrant should pour a little of his wine into the glasses of the rest of the company.)
Paragraph 10 requires the goblet of wine for Kiddush not to be 'impaired'. This is a technical term, and we can safely ignore most the characteristics of an 'impaired' cup except the main ones: the goblet of wine over which Kiddush is recited may not have a chip in the bowl, must be clean and must be brim full. If it is not filled to the brim it is 'impaired'. (Rabbi Karo explains that the goblet of wine for Kiddush should "fulfill all the requirements for the cup over which we recite Grace After Meals" in order not to be repetitive, since he has already detailed those requirements in Section 183.)
Regarding the physical manner in which Kiddush is to be recited there is a difference between the opinion of Rabbi Karo and that of his annotator Rabbi Moshe Isserles. (You will recall that Yosef Karo reflects predominantly the custom of 'oriental' Jews [Sefaradi] and the notes that Moshe Isserles added to the Shulĥan Arukh reflect the different customs of 'occidental' Jews [Ashkenazi].) In Shabbat 025 I gave a translation of Kiddush for Friday night. For the sake of convenience I repeat that translation here, but add certain headlines to indicate passages referred to later on in my explanation.
Boré peri ha-gefen
Rabbi Karo says that the passage marked Vayekhulu is to be recited standing. This is because this quotation [Genesis 2:1-3] is seen as our weekly testimony that we believe that the universe in which we live is not eternal, but was created (by God). In a rabbinic court of law all testimony must be delivered standing. So, by standing when reciting the passage Vayekhulu we are, as it were, offering testimony to the effect that God's Sabbath marks the culmination of His work of creation. Rabbi Karo does not say whether the following two passages - the benediction over wine and the Kiddush itself - are to be recited standing or seated. This is why, in his note, Rabbi Isserles adds that "while one can stand during Kiddush it is better to sit". In Shabbat 024 I mentioned the rule that "Kiddush may only be recited where the meal is taken". This is, of course, because Kiddush is an intrinsic part of the celebratory meal. Rabbi Isserles is of the opinion that since we eat sitting down and since Kiddush is an intrinsic part of the celebratory meal that we should recite the remaining two paragraphs of Kiddush while sitting down, even though we may stand.
However, Rabbi Isserles goes even further: it is his opinion that the whole of Kiddush should be recited while we are seated, including Vayekhulu. Many Ashkenazi Jews follow the ruling of Rabbi Isserles and recite the whole of Kiddush while seated. However, I have noticed that many (most?) Conservative Jews recite the whole of Kiddush while standing. This is strange, since in almost all other cases the Conservative movement has adopted the rulings of Rabbi Isserles. The only explanation for this peculiarity that I can think of is that it was originally adopted by association: in Shabbat 024 we saw that Rabbi Isserles insists that "it is customary to stand when Kiddush is recited in the synagogue." This is in order to distinguish the Kiddush recited in the synagogue by the cantor from the 'real' Kiddush which will be recited at home while seated at the dining table. Later great poskim [halakhic authorities] from the Ashkenazi world, such as the Ga'on of Vilna, have lent their weight to the ruling of Rabbi Isserles that Kiddush in the home should be recited in toto while seated. So the custom of those who stand for Kiddush is strange - unless they are from the Sefaradi community.
The passage from the Torah which we quote before Kiddush is taken from the first three verses of Genesis chapter 2. However, many people have the custom of prefacing that quotation with the last words of chapter 1: "And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day." This custom seems to have the encouragement of Rabbi Isserles, and he explains the origin of this addition: the initial letters of the four Hebrew words Yom Ha-shishi Vayekhulu Ha-shamayim ["the sixth day; heaven and earth were finished"] spell out the Divine Name, Yod-Heh-Vav-Heh. That is why, he says, that at the beginning of Vayekhulu we should rise slightly from our seats in honour of the Divine Name. However, some later poskim opined that it is wrong to quote verses from the Torah in an incomplete fashion. They therefore instituted that the Hebrew words for "and there was evening and there was morning" should be recited in an undertone and the celebrant should only raise his voice at the words "the sixth day; heaven and earth were finished" - thus getting the best of both worlds as it were: they do not recite an incomplete verse but they do emphasize the hinted Divine Name.
So many later poskim have gainsaid this consideration; they point out many occasions when, for ritual purposes, we do recite parts of biblical verses and not the whole verse. They say that the prohibition of quoting incomplete verses only applies to actual Torah study and not to ritual quotations. Therefore, this whole custom seems to be built on very shaky foundations. Someone coming new to reciting Kiddush, if they are from the Ashkenazi world, should adopt the custom of reciting the whole of Kiddush while seated and starting the biblical quotation from "Heaven and earth were finished". So it seems to me. However, there is nothing wrong with those who already have a certain different custom from continuing to follow it.
Isserles recommends that while reciting the biblical quotation Vayekhulu the celebrant should look at the light of the Shabbat candles and only when reciting the benediction of wine should the celebrant look at the goblet of wine. In his commentary (called Mishnah Berurah) Rabbi Israel Me'ir Kagan (Ĥafetz Ĥayyim) indicates that the recommendation is derived from folk superstition and "most people ignore it".
On the "embarrassment" of the hallah, could it be that we cover the bread so it is clear that we are saying Kiddush on the wine?
I was so engrossed in explaining the more recondite reasons that have been put forward for this custom that I forgot to state the obvious! Since, when we have no choice, Kiddush may be recited over bread instead of wine, we cover the ĥallot for the reason that Cheryl has mentioned. Thank you, Cheryl.
Bayla Singer writes: you had written, in Shabbat 020, "The kindling of a light is not prohibited on YomTov" and I brought this up on Pesach with some friends. They held that kindling is indeed prohibited, and one must transfer from an existing flame established before the Hag begins -- "that must be what he meant," they insisted. Would you be so kind as to clarify this?
Yes, that is what he meant! Since my comment was only incidental I thought that it was enough to mention that we may light a light on YomTov - something which we may not do on Shabbat. I did not think that it was necessary at that time to elaborate on the mechanics of how we may kindle lights on YomTov. Which just shows how wrong I was! Thank you, Bayla.