There are several more paragraphs to Section 163 that follow on after paragraph 12, but they do not have immediate relevance to our present theme and so we shall skip them. This means that paragraphs 11 and 12, which we have translated above, are the last two paragraphs of this section that we shall relate to. They are very simple and straightforward and will require little or no explanation. They are concerned with the very last moments before the onset of Shabbat.
We have already established that Shabbat begins for the congregation when the cantor recites Barekhu at the start of the evening service. (This is assuming, of course, that the cantor recites Barekhu before sunset, as was the custom during the middle ages; it need hardly be added that if the cantor recites Barekhu after sunset all the strictures of Shabbat already apply to all the congregation.) This was certainly the case for centuries. However, during the middle ages two liturgical items were prefaced to the recital of Barekhu. The first addition was the recital of Psalm 92, which is an appropriate preface to the Shabbat ritual because its heading is "A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day". (Psalm 93 was also tacked on for reasons that are not entirely clear, and this need not delay us here.) Thus, since this addition was generally accepted, all the references to Shabbat commencing with the recitation of Barekhu should be understood as now applying from the recital of Psalm 92. The second addition was a much longer preface, which we now call Kabbalat Shabbat (Reception of the Sabbath). This consists of the recitation of Psalms 95 to 99, Psalm 29 and the hymn "Lekha Dodi". This addition dates from the 16th century and the present arrangement was made by Rabbi Moshe Cordovero [1522-1570], one the most prominent members of the kabbalistic community of Safed in Eretz-Israel at that time.
Paragraph 11 states quite succinctly that if an individual chooses to recite the Sabbath evening service earlier than the rest of the congregation he or she thereby accepts the sanctity of Shabbat. (This assumes that they have recited the service after pelag ha-minĥah. In Shabbat 013, explanation 6 I gave a brief explanation of the time of pelag ha-minĥah.) Making a mental reservation to the effect that one does not yet wish to assume the sanctity of Shabbat is of no avail. We have seen that according to some authorities one can make such a mental reservation when lighting the candles; but all concur that the recital of the Shabbat evening service (after pelag ha-minĥah) makes all the strictures of Shabbat apply automatically.
We cannot have a situation in which Shabbat is deemed to have begun for most of the worshippers in the synagogue, while others claim that for them it has not. Therefore, paragraph 12 states quite simply that when Shabbat has begun for the majority of the worshippers it has also begun for the minority (who may have joined the service late and not yet reached Psalm 92).
Sections 264 through to 270 deal with various topics that are either no longer really relevant (such as what fuels and wicks may be used for the Shabbat lights) or are beyond the scope of our theme (such as details concerning the Sabbath Evening Service). Since our theme is "Shabbat Eve in the Home" in our next shiur we shall continue with the topic of Kiddush. However, if anyone has questions or comments concerning the Sabbath evening service in the synagogue I will do my best to respond to them.